ipadm command is new in Solaris 11 and the Illumos derived
distributions. It’s a different way of handling IP interfaces, replacing
ifconfig and a lot of
/etc file manipulation.
The first, most basic operation for which to use
ipadm is the creation of
a new IP interface. You need an existing datalink to create an interface
on - note I say datalink, not NIC. That’s a good job, because I don’t have
any free physical NICs on this box, so I’ll have to create a virtual NIC on
atge0 and use that.
# dladm create-vnic -l atge0 test0 # ipadm create-ip test0
ipadm command may seem like a pointless step. What, really, is
an “interface”? It doesn’t have an address or any useful properties,
so it doesn’t really do anything. Why can’t you just assign the
address, netmask etc. to the link, like you always used to? Well,
though I created a (typical) IP interface, you can also create VNI
interfaces and IPMP groups with
respectively. (More of the latter will follow.) So, we had to tell
ipadm what class of link we wanted to make. You can see all the
interfaces, and their classes, with
# ipadm show-if IFNAME CLASS STATE ACTIVE OVER lo0 loopback ok yes -- atge0 ip ok yes -- test0 ip down no --
So there’s my new interface. It’s not a lot of good though, is it? It’s “down” and not “active”, and it doesn’t have an address. Let’s create a static IP address on the new interface.
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a local=192.168.1.155/24 test0/addr
create-addr part is fairly obvious - we’re creating an address.
-T is the type of address we’re creating, in this case,
can also be
addrconf if you’re using IPv6, which I’m guessing you
probably aren’t, or
dhcp if you want to automatically configure your
manually configured IP address.) The
-a option sets the address, which
local, as ours is, or
remote is for point-to-point
connections, where you have to specify the remote and local endpoints
local=18.104.22.168,remote=22.214.171.124). If you’re just creating a “normal”
local interface, you can omit
local=. You can leave out the netmask
/24 in our example as well, assuming you’ve got suitably configured
/etc/netmasks file, and if you have a suitable entry in
even possible to use a hostname instead of an IP address.
The final argument,
net0/addr is the “address object”. An interface
can have multiple address objects associated with it, but often will
have just one - the IPv4 address. You can examine addresses with
show-addr, and use the address object name to be specific.
# ipadm show-addr test0/addr ADDROBJ TYPE STATE ADDR test0/addr static ok 192.168.1.155/24
That looks pretty much configured to me. Let’s quickly check it with
ifconfig (I won’t tell Oracle if you don’t.)
$ ifconfig test0 test0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.1.155 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 2:8:20:7f:7d:a4
Note that the interface is
UP. This is the default, and if you want it
-d into the
create-addr command. If you don’t want the
address to persist (i.e. it only lasts until the next reboot) add in
-t, like you do with
I don’t know about you, but I rather liked that as a way of configuring
an interface. It seems very clean and simple.
show-addr even notifies
you of IP address collisions by putting
duplicate in the
field! The only oddity is that “address object” we have to keep tagging
on the end. That was weird, and pointless, right?
Well, no. For a start, the address object name gives you a way to refer to the address. Say you wanted to delete the IP address, but not go so far as blowing away the VNIC, you’d specify the object:
# ipadm delete-addr test0/addr
There’s nothing magical about the word
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.155/24 test0/live
is perfectly valid, and perhaps tells us that interface is on the “live”
VLAN. (I’m very big on self-documenting naming schemes.) Or perhaps if
you were to have IPv4 and IPv6 on the same interface, you might call
net0/v6 or something?
Address object names also allow you to give sensible names to virtual IP addresses when using shared IP instances for zones. (Though you probably won’t use shared IP instances in Solaris 11, as the exclusive instance configuration is so good.)
All of the above works in OpenIndiana too. If you’re using Solaris 11, you’re into the hell of configuring your DNS via SMF. If not, lucky you!
To continue the theme of not editing files in
/etc we define our default
router through a command now as well:
# route -p add default 192.168.1.1
route -p for a while now I think, since fairly early on in the
Solaris 10 cycle, so that’s probably worked for ages.
Want to briefly take an interface down, then bring it back up? Easy.
# ipadm down-addr test0/live $ ping 192.168.1.155 1 no answer from 192.168.1.155 # ipadm up-addr test0/live $ ping 192.168.1.155 192.168.1.155 is alive
You can disable and re-enable the interface itself just as efficiently with
Have you ever had to tune your TCP stack? Writing
rc.d scripts that
ndd every reboot never seemed right, did it? Try running
# ipadm show-prop
And there are all the tunables, nicely laid out and easy to read and manipulate. Just want the TCP properties? No problem:
# ipadm show-prop tcp
It even shows you allowable ranges and values! Want to increase your receive buffer size until next reboot?
# ipadm set-prop -t -p recv_buf=300000 tcp
This gets better all the time doesn’t it? To make the change persist
across reboot (i.e. not transient), omit
We’ve just been looking at interface properties. Address objects have properties too, and
# ipadm show-addrprop
will show you them for all objects. To query a single object, out comes the object name again:
# ipadm show-addrprop test0/live
There is a third set of properties which can be viewed and manipulated with
ipadm, and they belong to the datalinks, both physical and virtual.
# ipadm show-ifprop
Want to change the IPv4 metric on
# ipadm set-ifprop -p metric=1 -m ipv4 atge0
What, that’s broken all your networking and want to change it back to the default?
# ipadm reset-ifprop -p metric -m ipv4 atge0
Hopefully by now you’ll have realized that
ipadm is a Good Thing, pulling
together stuff that was previously scattered all over Solaris, and putting a
good clean front end on it. It even produces colon-separated
machine-parseable output with the
-o options. I don’t know if
it’s the same people who did
dladm, but it’s an equally good bit of design
You can delete an interface even if it has live addresses.
# ipadm show-addr test0/addr ADDROBJ TYPE STATE ADDR test0/addr static ok 192.168.1.155/24 # ipadm delete-ip test0 # ipadm show-addr test0/addr ipadm: address object not found
I said earlier that an interface can be IP, VNI, or IPMP. I’ve never
used a VNI link, so I don’t feel qualified to talk about that, but I do
use IPMP, and I always felt the way you managed it in previous versions
of Solaris was something of a mess. Here’s where we genuinely do need a
new command, and that command is, of course,
For the sake of illustration I’m going to create an IPMP pair using two VNICs on the same physical interface. Obviously that’s pointless and stupid in real life, but it’ll do here.
# dladm create-vnic -l atge0 path0 dladm create-vnic -l atge0 path1
You need an IP interface on both of those paths:
# ipadm create-ip path0 # ipadm create-ip path1
Then you can create your IPMP group using those interfaces.
# ipadm create-ipmp -i path0,path1 ipmp0 # ipadm show-if ipmp0 IFNAME CLASS STATE ACTIVE OVER ipmp0 ipmp down no path0 path1
Now you can treat
ipmp0 (you could have called it anything you wanted) as
if it were any other interface. So let’s give it an address:
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.177/24 ipmp0/v4 $ ping 192.168.1.177 192.168.1.177 is alive
You can view and change the properties of that address just as if it were a “normal” SPOF interface. And, of course, that IPMP group will still be there if we reboot. Ridiculously simple isn’t it? You know what, I don’t think I trust that two-path group. Let’s add another.
# dladm create-vnic -l atge0 path2 # ipadm create-ip path2 # ipadm add-ipmp -i path2 ipmp0 # ipadm show-if ipmp0 IFNAME CLASS STATE ACTIVE OVER ipmp0 ipmp ok yes path0 path1 path2
On second thoughts, maybe that’s overkill. To remove “the third way”:
# ipadm remove-ipmp -i path2 ipmp0
To digress slightly, there’s also a command called
ipmpstat which can give
you more information on things like the health of the group (with
frequency and routing of probes (
-p), and the test addresses those probes
# ipmpstat -t INTERFACE MODE TESTADDR TARGETS path1 disabled -- -- path0 disabled -- --
Clearly, the group we set up doesn’t use test addresses, so it’s not the safest form of IPMP. We can add test addresses like so:
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.181 path1/testv4 # ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.180 path0/testv4 # ipmpstat -nt INTERFACE MODE TESTADDR TARGETS path1 routes 192.168.1.181 192.168.1.1 path0 routes 192.168.1.180 192.168.1.1
Note how I chose to use a descriptive address object name, which I think is
good practice. The
-n flag in the
ipmpstat command forces addresses to
be printed as numbers. Otherwise lookups are done and hostnames are printed.
I thought that output was less clear for my example.
You can’t just blow away an IPMP interface like you can a normal IP interface
# ipadm delete-ipmp ipmp0 ipadm: cannot delete IPMP interface ipmp0: IPMP group is not empty
We need to remove the interfaces from the IPMP group:
# ipmpstat -t INTERFACE MODE TESTADDR TARGETS path2 disabled -- -- path1 routes 192.168.1.181 router # ipadm remove-ipmp -i path1,path2 ipmp0 # ipadm delete-ipmp ipmp0
And for the sake of tidiness, remove those interfaces too.
# ipadm delete-ip path1 # ipadm delete-ip path2
So that’s the new way of doing network interfaces and IPMP. Good, isn’t it?